Our farm is set on five acres of clay soil in northern Indiana, growing zone 5b. Four greenhouses cover nearly 1/4 acre of land and we farm an additional 1/4 acre in the open. (That's right, we make our living on about 1/2 acre of land.) We purchased the former Amish Mennonite dairy farm in 2008. Former pastures now grow vegetables and the milking parlor is now a produce packing room.
Our goal in farm layout: keep lines of work straight, short, and intuitive. We use intensive growing methods so that every square inch is used for as much as of the year as possible: when one crop is removed we re-plant as quickly as we can. We call the practice Kanban farming, a term borrowed from lean manufacturing.
To save soil prep time, we covered the entire growing area with compost. We established 100 permanent raised growing beds, each measuring 30" x 65'. (We chose the length for psychological reasons: at 65' we are ready to quit picking beans.) We reshape once each year with a Kubota tractor and compact bed shaper. The system means that our soils are soft, fun to touch, and contain lots of organic matter (10-12%). We don't spend a lot of time loosening stiff ground. Fertility management is simple: we replenish with an inch of compost if soils need help (no liquid or granular fertilizer).
We now transplant all of our crops except for carrots and baby greens, which we direct seed with a precision seeder. We love multi-plant plugs: 4-6 seeds of a crop planted into one small cell. We transplant these clumps of 4-6 seedlings together, usually at a 10" x 10" spacing between clumps. We use this technique for spinach, mizuna, turnips, beets, green onions, and radishes, among others. The plants grow away from one another. This cuts transplanting time in half and ensures crops are ahead of weeds and off to a good start. Of the many wastes that creep onto farms, defect waste (where your product doesn't make it to the finish line) is perhaps the most damaging. This practice nearly eliminates it.